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The Ancient Civilization

The Ancient Civilization of Egypt

There is substantial archaeological evidence about the ancient civilization of Egypt. Located at the intersection between Asia and Africa, Egypt emerges with a unique cultural heritage. It has been recognized by scholars as a ‘divine kingship’.[1] The constantly increasing population of Egypt obviously required better structured and more sophisticated political organization which also included a specific form of local kingship. Moreover, historians tend to divide Egyptian history into 30 dynasties representing different sequences of kings coming from the same family. A relevant phenomenon pertaining to the early Egyptian society is the constant rise and fall of dynasties. It reflects the dominance of particular parts of the country. In this context, scholars demonstrate a tendency to divide Egyptian history into ‘old’, ‘middle’ and ‘new kingdoms’. Each of the periods indicates focus on centralized political power and significant cultural achievements.

It is important to note that the Egyptian state placed crucial importance on the relevance of the king, identified by the term ‘pharaoh’. The primary role of the pharaoh was to maintain the divinely authorized order of the universe. In fact, he represented a strong link between ordinary people and gods.[2] This shows that early Egyptians demonstrated a unique conception of a divine king who is responsible for the prosperity of the nation. This notion was also closely linked with the idea that the king is an ultimate source of law and justice in early Egyptian society.

In terms of administration and communication, ruling Egyptian dynasties turned out to place their capitals in the area of their power base. However, the administration of early Egyptian society was presented by a complicated bureaucratic system pertaining to detailed records of the resources available in the country.[3] Furthermore, the governmental structure present at ancient Egypt demonstrated a monopoly over essential sectors of the economy. In relation to the emergence of the administration and communication system of Egypt, it is significant to note the development of literacy before the Early Dynastic period, which actually marked the administrative class.[4] An interesting fact related to Egyptian history, as pointed out by modern historians, is that powerful monarchs appointed officials based on their accomplishment and merit.

Therefore, Egyptian history has persistently indicated focus on exhibiting tension between the monarchy’s centralizing power and the bureaucracy’s decentralizing tendencies. There has been a common historical observation that ancient Egypt thoroughly represented a unique land of villages without having real cities. A substantial part of Egyptian wealth is actually derived from cultivating the land.[5]

Historians also present solid evidence with regards to the people of ancient Egypt. It has been identified that Egypt had less acclaimed social divisions than Mesopotamia, where the emergence of a formal class structure took place. In this context, the king as well as high-ranking officials demonstrated substantial power and wealth. Nonetheless, peasants represented the majority of the early Egyptian population.[6] It is apparent that Egyptian peasants lived in rural villages and completely absorbed in the demanding tasks of agriculture.

In addition, archaeological evidence regarding ancient Egypt indicates the presence of distinct beliefs and knowledge among the Egyptian population.[7] A curious fact mentioned by modern historians is that Egyptian religion extensively evoked the landscape of the Nile Valley. The vision of cosmic order has been a dominant concept throughout the cultural history of ancient Egypt. This shows that ancient Egyptians tended to explore different areas of knowledge and thus they were prompted to develop technologies that were advanced at that time.[8]

The discussed concepts obviously present relevant notions into the specificity of the Egyptian civilization and what it has to offer to modern readers of history. Undoubtedly, the evidence provided by modern historians is sufficient in applying certain concepts in practice in order to understand basic historical aspects of the ancient city of Egypt.[9] It can be indicated that Egyptian society is quite diverse in nature, and this reflects in numerous areas of development to include cultural, social and economic. The Egyptian civilization demonstrates the importance of history in all of its dimensions. In this way, individuals may enrich their perspectives by gaining a relevant knowledge of the Egyptian history.

There are plenty of ruins and ancient records related to ancient Egypt. An exploration of ancient Egypt allows people to focus on the distinct features of a unique civilization. In conclusion, the civilization of ancient Egypt was one of the most impressive ones in human history. The achievements of this civilization are evident in a wide range of fields to include art and architecture, medicine, engineering, etc. Being identified as one of the earliest civilizations in world history, Egyptian civilization emerged with essential values of power, authority, innovation and creativity.



Bulliet, Richard, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsh, Lyman Johnson, and David Northup. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

Hoffman, Michael. Egypt before the Pharaohs: The Prehistoric Foundations of Egyptian Civilization. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1979.

Moniem, Abdel. “The National Museum of Egyptian Civilization.” Museum International 57, no. 1/2 (2005): 24-30.


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